(ORIENT - Photogrammetric Engineering Utilities System)

The program ORPHEUS was developed at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (I.P.F.) at Vienna University of Technology. Basically providing a GUI for the hybrid photogrammetric adjustment system ORIENT, it additionally offers new modules for interactive measurement of points and/or lines in digital images (figure 1).


Figure 1: An example for interactive measurement using ORPHEUS. In this case, 3 images are displayed on the screen 

ORPHEUS is well-suited for, but not restricted to, handling terrestrial projects. ORIENT provides the rigorous mathematical model for hybrid adjustment. In the course of time, more and more ORIENT modules will become accessible under the ORPHEUS GUI environment. In addition, new automation tools applying digital image processing techniques will be implemented in ORPHEUS.

Here is a list of modules in ORPHEUS 3.0: 

Data Import:

  • Import of data from ASCII-files (especially import of control points).
  • Import of (tiled or untiled, greyscale or true colour) TIFF images.
  • Definition of "fictitious observations" (control lines, tie lines, surfaces for intersection with single rays, etc.).
  • Import of camera calibration data.

Observation Management:

  • Perspective images (PHOTO)
  • Models (MODEL)
  • Control points (CONPOI)
  • Fictitious observations (GESTALT).

Graphical Display:

  • Simultaneous display of an (in principle) unlimited number of digital images of arbitrary size
  • Fast display due to image pyramids and "tiled TIFF"
  • Simultaneous display of measured points/lines (configurable)
  • A zoom window is provided for each digital image (figure 1)
  • Bilinear resampling for the display of enlarged image parts (optional)
  • Local image enhancement for the zoom window.

Digital Image Processing:

  • Contrast enhancement: histogram normalization / equalization, . . .
  • Various (also information preserving) filters
  • Parametric correction of radial fall-off in aerial images
  • Enhancement can be applied locally in the zoom window
  • Moreover, ORPHEUS is the I.P.F.’s development environment for automatic tools using digital image processing techniques.

Interactive Measurement:

  • Interactive measurement of points/lines in digital images
  • Three different modes for incrementing point identifiers
  • Interactive declaration of fictitious observations
  • Measurement in an (in principle) arbitrary number of images which can be displayed simultaneously
  • Thus, ORPHEUS is a Digital Multi-image Monocomparator.

Interactive Determination of Approximations:

Approximate values are required for the rotations of e.g. the images. A GUI for that purpose is available: a camera representation can be rotated interactively in a graphic plot of the control points (figure 2) until the rotations appear to be OK in 3D.


Figure 2: An example for the graphical representation of a camera icon


A GUI for standard adjustment by least squares is available (figure 3).

Observation types:

  • Perspective images (PHOTO)
  • Models (MODEL)
  • Control points (CONPOI)
  • Fictitious observations (GESTALT)
  • Geodetic measurements (POLAR; without data management).


Figure 3: Graphical User Interface for Adjustment

Data Export:

  • Simple 3D-DXF and VRML export
  • Export of orientation data in Intergraph format.

3D Photo Models:

  • Creation of a wireframe model of the object by interactive measurement tools
  • Creation of a 3D boundary representation from the wireframe based on 3D triangulation
  • Both interactive and automatical assignment of triangles to photos for texture projection
  • Production of a 3D photo model in the VRML format (figure 4).


Figure 4: A 3D photo model in VRML created by ORPHEUS. The orthophoto and the digital elevation model were added to the model off-line.


  • Interface for export of orientation parameters to ORPHEUS DOP for the production of digital orthophotos.
  • Based on digital elevation models produced by the DEM software package SCOP.