ORIENT is an universal program system mainly intended to do rigorous adjustments in the field of photogrammetric point determination. Many kinds of observations and/or parameters may be treated simultaneously:

  • Observations: 
    • image points (x,y)
    • model points (x,y,z)
    • polar points (direction, zenith angle, distance)
    • object control points (X,Y,Z)
    • fictitious observations of geometric gestalts (planes & straight lines, surfaces & curves)
  • Parameters:
    • transformation (calibration, orientation) parameters
    • additional parameters for
      • image deformation
      • gestalt formation
    • modelling of trajectories of scanners (polynomials oder splines)

The program system is designed to handle projects of analytical photogrammetry with utmost mathematical rigourosity. The man-software-hardware communication architecture of ORIENT is shown in figure 1.

The main modules of ORIENT are:


to input data (e.g. measurements)


to prospect and/or to change available data


to create fictitious observations (gestalts)


to transform and correct PiCture Co-ORdinates


to adjust observations
to locate and to eliminate gross errors automatically
to determine parameters
to gain accuracy and reliability measures


to manage data (CORe MANager)


to calculate directions, distances, polygons etc. from the results of the adjustment


to graphically output data rooms


to adapt the level of instructions
to control the amount of output
to change the mode of communication
to interrupt the program
to save the data base
to stop the program
etc. ...


Fig. 1: The communicative architecture of ORIENT

Remark: The figure 1 has been constructed by means of ORIENT's graphics module PLOT.